French artist Edgar Degas (1834-1917) is often considered an Impressionist due to his contemporary subject manner and close social ties to Impressionist artists. His work, however, lacks the Impressionist emphasis on color and light. Inspired by his early love for, and training in, classical history painting, he eventually developed the distinct style for which he is now revered - a combination of naturalism, realism, Impressionism, and abstraction.
Italian painter Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1530-1593) was an innovator in his own day. His work consisted of portraits made up of compilations of objects, and the works' visual pleasure, wit, and humor made Arcimboldo popular with European monarchs. He served under three Holy Roman Emperors.